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Enhancing Motivation in Sport

Professional Development Comments Off

Understanding and enhancing motivation is one of the most popular topics in sports psychology and coaching. Motivation is seen not only as a drive to engage in an activity, but more importantly as the driving force of human excellence. It is the level of motivation that will often differentiate those athletes who excel from those who do not. Motivation has also been defined as the ability to act. The term motivation is derived from a Latin word “movere” meaning “to move” (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).
It is through motivation that individuals can exert effort to meet the demands of a task or an activity. Motivation prompts enthusiasm, purposefulness and committed behaviour. Maintaining motivation can be a challenging task for most individuals. There are a number of contributing factors that can alter an individual’s desire to persist with an activity.
Signs of motivated Individuals include:

  • Energetic
  • Enthusiastic
  • Appropriately confident
  • Committed
  • Deliberate and purposeful in actions

Signs of amotivated Individuals include:

  • Disengaged
  • Distracted
  • Lack of interest
  • Half hearted
  • Uncommitted
  • Unprepared

In this article we explore the concept of motivational climate, and learn the importance of social support from parents and role models in the motivation-enhancing process for athletes.
Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation
There are social-psychological situations created by others that can have an impact on an individual’s level of motivation. Personal issues (e.g. aspirations, goals and expectations), environmental issues (e.g. selection, training, competitive environment, competition) and team issues (e.g. coach’s aspirations, and coaching styles) may all represent potential sources of stress in athletes (Duda & Balaguer, 2007). Thus, the environment created by the coach, the family and peers (i.e., the motivational climate) as perceived by the individual learner could affect them adversely, and provoke anxiety and possibly influence self-confidence and their level of motivation.
The importance of the perceived motivational climate (PMC), the situational structures seen by the athletes as emphasized in a particular setting, has been highlighted by Nicholls (1989) achievement theory. It is theorised that the PMC is composed of two goal structures. The mastery climate is a task-involving climate that emphasises the process of competition and skill development (Duda & Balaguer, 2007).
Performance climate is an ego-involving climate that focuses on the competitive outcome. The PMC may be fostered by the coach, parents, team or a combination of these factors. The motivational climate perceived by the individual has been related to the achievement goal orientations held by the athlete. For example, a perceived mastery climate has been related to task orientation, while a perceived performance climate has been related to an ego orientation (White, Kavussanu, Tank, & Wingate, 2004).
It has been reported that a task orientated climate adopted by the coach can result in positive cognitive and emotional responses in athletes. The relationship between climate and goal orientations has been found to affect aspects of performance. Nicholls (1984) thought that task orientation and the “compatible perceptions” of a mastery climate would be associated with:

  • Adaptive motivational responses such as increased effort, commitment and persistence in achievement settings;
  • Greater enjoyment, satisfaction and positive affect;
  • The belief that effort is an important cause of sport success;
  • Adaptive coping strategies, problem solving and reduced susceptibility to burnout;
  • Perceived competence.

On the other hand, ego orientation and performance climate perceptions would lead to maladaptive motivational responses such as:

  • Low effort;
  • Lack of commitment and persistence;
  • Higher anxiety and performance worry;
  • The belief that ability is an important determinant of sport achievement;
  • Dropping out in sport.

These maladaptive motivational responses were thought to occur due to the detrimental nature of ego orientations and performance climates which emphasized competitive outcome over skill development (Vosloo, Ostrow & Watson, 2009; Ntoumanis, Vazou & Duda, 2007). As such, in enhancing motivation, compatibility of goal orientation and motivational climate are essential as they may influence an individual’s cognitive, affective and behavioural responses in achievement setting (Duda & Balaguer, 2007).
Social support from Parents and Peers
The role that parents play in creating a motivational climate that is conducive to achievement goals is important. Generally supportive and involved parents create a climate that can lead to feelings of autonomy and competence. Such climate can result in feelings of joy, excitement and increased perception of ability. It has been said that children who are granted by their parents more opportunities to pursue their interests develop greater feelings of autonomy.
It is suggested that a supportive climate offered by the parents is likely to lead to greater motivation and participation in sport (Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005). However, parents can also be inhibitors of motivation. Parents who emphasize winning and excellence can discourage children form physical activity participation. In addition to that, a relationship that has been established between the child and the parent can create a positive motivational climate.
In particular, secure parent-child relationship leads to an internally developed set of goals, acting as an intrinsic type of motivation for that child. Similarly, an insecure parent-child relationship promotes detachments and emotional distress and the use of external control of behaviour. As such, children in such a relationship are more likely to be extrinsically motivated to pursue their desired activities (White, 2007).
Individuals may not always be related to or be explained by the need or desire to demonstrate physical ability. Social concerns such as demonstrating social connections have also been implicated as motives especially in young people (Allen, 2003). Social bonds are necessary for optimal psychological functioning and the need to establish such connection serves as an energizer for the individual. Motivation occurs when the need to belong stimulates goal directed behaviour designed to satisfy that need.
According to self determination theory, an environment that promotes relatedness support and autonomy support increases cooperation and individual initiative (Ntoumanis, Vazou & Duda, 2007). Relatedness support is the encouragement and facilitation by peers of being part of a group as well as the degree to which the peers create a friendly atmosphere. Autonomy support on the other hand refers to the individual feeling that their teammates and peers value their input. Therefore it is suggested that social relationships act as motivation for sports participation as such individuals are oriented towards potential gains associated with involvement in certain activities.
Such gains as social status and social validation through approval from significant others such as peers are propelling factors to persist. As a result, social relationships are ego orientated goals functioning as an extrinsic motivation for the concerned individual (Allen, 2003).
Role Models
Role models, heroes and mentors are part of everyday life and are believed to have great significance on the beliefs and actions of an individual. Role models that an individual identify with can act as a source of motivation. It’s a long standing assumption that human behaviour is learned by observation through modeling. From a motivational perspective, modeling is considered to be one of the most powerful means of transmitting values, attitudes and patterns of behaviour and thoughts.
According to Bandura (cited in Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005), there are 4 processes which are essential for effective modeling to occur: attention, retention, production and motivation. The argument is that an individual must attend to the appropriate information gathered from the model, be capable of producing the desired movements demonstrated by the model and be motivated to carry out the behaviour (Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005).
It is also suggested that the characteristics of the role model determine how that role model may influence individual‘s new behaviour. If the role model is similar to the individual rather than dissimilar and demonstrates high skilled activity, it is more likely that the learning individual will have increased motivation. It is easier for an individual to believe that they can accomplish skills or change behaviour if they see someone similar to them undertaking actions before they make the attempt themselves (Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005).
Self Modeling
Unlike role modeling, self modeling is where by an individual watches a “video” of themselves and only views their successful behaviours. Self modeling is designed to increase the self efficacy of an individual as it provides clear information on how best to perform skills and it strengthens beliefs in one’s capability (Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005).
Because past behaviour is believed to be the strongest predictor of current self efficacy judgements, by observing oneself executing successful moves, a learner is more motivated to continue progressing. Self modelling falls in line with the assumptions of Self Efficacy theory that there are three mediating factors that influence the individual’s response to modeling and these are:

  • Self-efficacy expectancy: This is concerned about the learners’ perceptions of how capable they feel they are to actually carry out the behaviour.
  • Outcome expectancy: If there is a high probability that the behaviour will result in the specific outcome, there is a greater chance that the learner will adopt the behaviour.
  • Outcome value: If the outcome of the behaviour is desirable then there is a greater likelihood of the behaviour being undertaken.

Feed forward
A specific mode of self modelling known as feed forward has also been said to have a potential of positively influencing motivation and performance. Feed forward modelling provides an individual with information about possible future behaviour rather than their past or current behaviour.
This strategy is similar to self modelling in that the individual views themselves performing successfully but it differs in that the performance shown to the individual is the skill or behaviour that the individual is yet to accomplish. It appears that through this technique, the learner’s perceptions are transformed so that what was previously viewed as beyond ones’ capabilities soon becomes part of one’s repertoire (Walker, Foster, Daubert & Nathan, 2005).

  • Allen, J. (2003). Social motivation in youth sport. Journal of sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 551-567.
  • Duda, J. & Balaguer, I. (2007). Coach- Created Motivational Climate. in Jowett, S., & Lavelle, e, (Eds.). Social Psychology in Sport (pp. 117-130). Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  • Eccles, J., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132. 
  • Walker, B., Foster, S., Daubert, S. & Nathan, D. (2005). Motivation. In Taylor, J. & Wilson, G. (2005) (Eds.). Applying Sport Psychology: Four Perspectives, Champaign: Human Kinetics
  • White, S.A. Kavussanu, M., & Guest, S. M. (1998). Goal orientations and perceptions of the motivational climate created by significant others. European Journal of Physical Education, 3, 212-228.


Relationship Coaching Scenarios

Personal Development, Professional Development Comments Off

Looking for insights into relationship coaching? In the following coaching scenarios, LCI’s Master Coach Terry Neal explores a range of strategies and skills to assist clients overcome relationship hurdles. Each scenario is headlined by common questions clients may ask you as their life coach.
How can I get my partner to understand my needs and appreciate me again?
This question quite often arises from one or both partners after the initial period of the relationship has passed. This could be only after a short time say after a few months or it could be after a period of some years. It could also be a wish expressed by one of the partners after a period of many years together in a relationship.
Relationships sometimes are entered into by one or both partners with a belief that their partner fully understands and appreciates them and their needs. Quite often, while acknowledging that those in a partnership will learn more about themselves and their partner over time and maybe apply it in their interactions with each other in an ideal situation, many people either haven’t been fully open in their discussions with their partner during the early phase of their relationship – or have assumed that their partner will know what they want and will act accordingly to support their needs.
Initially it’s important to ask what the client knows about their partner’s needs as well as their own. Therefore I would begin by asking the question: Do you know what your partner’s needs are?
If the answer is yes then you could ask: Are you supportive of their needs? From this you could also ask: How did you find out about what your partner’s needs are? Do you appreciate your partner for who they are? How do you let them know you appreciate them?
If the answer is no, you need to ask your client about themselves and their perceived needs. Do you know what your needs are that you’d like your partner to understand? Does your partner already demonstrate appreciation of you and how you are?
If your client indicates that their partner is aware of their needs and does demonstrate appreciation then you could continue with questions like: In what ways does your partner appreciate you already? How do you react to any appreciation of you by your partner?
The reasons for asking these questions is so that you can determine for yourself and for your client what’s already taking place with regards to awareness of their needs and appreciation of them by their partner. It’s also an opportunity to elicit from your client how they react to being shown appreciation and having their needs understood.
If your client indicates that their partner doesn’t appear to understand or appreciate their needs, then it’s time to look at two areas with your client. 

  1. The first is determining whether your client really knows what their needs are, and;
  2. Second the level of openness of communication between your client and their partner.

To assist your client be clear about their own needs you could ask them to write them down (if they would prefer to keep them private) or if they wish to say them to you while you write them down. 

To see if there’s any need that hasn’t been expressed, you could ask your client to think of any times in their life when a need of theirs was understood by someone else. Once again this need could be expressed to you or kept private by your client. If yes you could ask the question: Is this need still relevant in your life today? Do you want to add it to your list of needs?
After some time your client will have determined for themselves their current list of needs that they would like to be able to talk about with their partner.
The next and probably the most crucial step is looking at how your client can create meaningful conversation opportunities with their partner. Your client may indicate that they already exist and so you could question your client on when these opportunities take place. Do you know when the best times are to bring up an important matter that you want to talk about with your partner? Or how have you approached talking with your partner in the past about an important matter? This is then drawing on the experiences of your client in setting up these conversation opportunities to look at deeper personal issues.
If your client indicates that they and their partner have never really had a deep and meaningful conversation about personal issues then you could ask your client if they and their partner have had conversations where they talked about some activity that they enjoyed doing e.g. a sporting triumph or an academic achievement or something that their partner was passionate about, and to remember the setting (on holidays, at the beach, over a dinner, having a coffee whatever the setting was). Then ask if they’d be willing to invite their partner to a similar setting; start a conversation about a neutral but positive topic about themselves; and allow each other to talk uninterrupted for a period of time (say 5 minutes).
After listening to each other you could suggest to your client that they say to their partner what they notice that’s important for their partner about what they’ve said (e.g. winning at cricket is very important for their partner) and that they appreciate a particular quality of their partner (e.g. their keen competitiveness). Finally, your client could ask their partner if they notice what is important for your client through what your client has said.
While the scenario presented for your client may not go as smoothly as suggested here, remind them that if they and/or their partner are not used to talking this way about these topics, that the process may take time – but it’s worth giving it a shot.
What is the secret to having a loving caring relationship that can stand the test of time?
This question can come from a client who’s already involved in a relationship that may have changed in its dynamics recently, from a client who’s just started a relationship or from someone who would like to start an ongoing relationship and is looking for strategies to help create a long term loving relationship.
For the purpose of this scenario, I will assume that your client is already in a relationship that has changed in its dynamics and they are feeling concerned about this and wondering what they can do.
The activities that I will suggest to you could also be applied by those starting in a relationship. This could assist them to be prepared for some issues that could arise over time.
To begin you could ask your client to write down the qualities and values that they feel are important for them to give and receive in a relationship.
From this list you could assist your client to develop a vision or image of the way they’d like their relationship to be – a statement, description (something that it meaningful to them) or vision that indicates both what they are willing to give and what they’d like to receive.
From this personal statement I suggest that you ask your client to consider their partner and the level of communication that they have with them. You could ask questions like: How well do you think your partner understands what’s important to you? How well can the two of discuss a difficult issue? How often do you argue if at all? What interests do you have in common?
The purpose of these questions and others that you may ask as a result of your client’s answers is to assist them to acknowledge some of the feelings and thoughts they have about their current relationship, as well as for you to raise the important aspect of the need for honest and open communication between your client and their partner. This is an essential part of a long term, loving and caring relationship.
It could also highlight areas that your client may need to discuss with their partner, and indicate areas within their relationship which a referral to a relationship counsellor may be required for further investigation and resolution.
Depending upon what your client has said, you could ask them to consider what areas they feel they would need to improve to help strengthen their relationship. This could be both personal activities that nourish your client as well as activities that involve both partners in the relationship.
Finally, you could assist your client to understand that their needs, vision and ideas of supportive activities will not necessarily be the same as their partner – but that in their willingness to listen to and communicate with their partner they create a real opportunity to nourish a long term, loving and caring relationship.
I love my partner and don’t want to leave but I’m bored. What do I do?
This statement and subsequent question can quite often come from a person who feels two conflicting aspects in their relationship with their partner: there’s a need for space and autonomy, of being able to do “their own thing” as well as wanting to be close to someone, to know that they are loved and accepted for who they are – in other words, there is a longing for intimacy.
The opening statement of such a scenario could also arise due to a number of possible changes that can occur in a relationship over time. These changes are usually associated with changes in the pattern of a relationship (e.g. having children) or they could be associated with a particular stage in life that one or both of the people in the relationship may be experiencing (e.g. menopause or loss of their sexual drive).
Changes caused by unexpected events in a person’s life may also have contributed to this feeling of boredom and lack of direction (e.g. the death of a parent or child, the loss of their job or the diagnosis of a life threatening illness).
So if your client presents you with this statement, you as their coach would initially need to get some background information of both your client’s personal life situation and the general situation within their relationship. If you determine through initial questioning that there is a major difficulty or challenge within your client’s relationship with their partner, then you would be ethically bound to talk about a referral to a suitably qualified relationship counsellor.
This area of general relationship “health” is vital to explore because the actions that your client will choose to take in the future will depend on how and where they see themselves both as an individual person who happens to be in a relationship and also as a person who is part of a relationship. Their future actions could depend on having an understanding of how a particular stage of life, their relationship with their partner or an event that has happened or is happening in their life now, is impacting on them.
If all seems well in the relationship in general with no specific issues that need the attention of a relationship counsellor, you could start by encouraging your client to talk about how they see themselves at this stage as an individual and then as an individual within their relationship.
You could also ask specific questions to clarify what they’re saying to you and the use of the NLP technique of “Healthy Questioning” (more on questioning) your client in relating as clearly as possible how they see themselves as individuals as well as being a partner in their relationship. Questions at this time could focus around the areas of communication, work, money, children; in fact any area that your client may hint at and assist you and your client to focus on the current reality so the you both can have an honest and clear picture of your client’s current situation.
Once you’ve gathered basic information and then used paraphrasing and summarising to check back with your client as to the accuracy of what they’ve said, you could then ask your client if there is an area of particular concern that they feel that they’d like to address first. If there’s more than one (this could be quite possible), ask them if they can see any common links between these areas of concern that they have expressed.
With the focus of main concern identified, the next step would be to assist your client to develop a vision of what it will look like – what will be different when this concern has been addressed and solved. This could be done using the miracle question, a letter from the future or some other similar technique that projects your client into a future scenario where their issue or challenge has been dealt with and they are living exactly the kind of life they’d like to live.
With this vision in mind you could then ask your client if there have been times in the past where this issue or challenge didn’t exist or appeared to have been taken care of, and ask them to describe those times even if it was only for the briefest periods of time.
Ask them to talk about what happened then and what did they do to help create this situation either knowingly or without any apparent action on their part only. For example, your client could suggest that a change in their partner’s behaviour caused a momentary change in their own life.
If this is stated by your client, you would need to point out to them that while the different action of their partner felt appropriate at that time, that how your client chose to react to this different action was their own choice.
Therefore it’s important to keep on making sure that the client is focussing on what they have done in the past as although the actions of your client’s partner for example can orchestrate a change in your client’s life, that ultimately it is only your client who can decide on and create the changes that they’d like to see for themselves in their life.
From this questioning, encourage your client to acknowledge those actions that worked for them in their relationship as well for themselves as individuals in the past. If they say that they are unaware of any exception times in the past, ask them about any times when they could have done something that felt positive for them but which they chose not to do at that time. You do not need to go into the “why” they may not have chosen these actions but simply that this may have been a possible way of acting then and perhaps could be in the future if they so choose.
So assisting your client to decide upon some suggestions that they’ve used, could have used and/or have worked in the past, could help them to change the way they act within their relationship which in turn could change the feeling of boredom they have expressed about their relationship into something positive.
You could then ask them to state how willing they are to act on at least one of these suggestions in the next few days and to observe how they and how they feel their partner’s reaction is to this action and to be willing to report back to you either over the phone or via email or face to face and if they agree to then set a date and time to do this.
A final reminder to your client would be necessary around the fact that it can take time and persistence for change to happen naturally; that is it will take some time before any new action chosen by them will feel comfortable and more importantly that they are making a commitment to change their own actions and/or create new actions and not change and/or create any actions for their partner.
However their commitment to change and then carrying it out, may be the very catalyst that their partner uses to make their own changes within the relationship with the result that they both may help create a more positive relationship with themselves individually, and as a couple.

Top 10 Marketing Principals for Coaches

Business Development Comments Off

Just as marketing is the cornerstone of your business success, systems are the foundation of effective marketing. If you consider the key differentiators between an extremely successful enterprise and an averagely successful enterprise in the same industry, it’s always one of two things (or a combination) that makes the difference.
They are marketing and innovation. And whilst innovation can give you first to market advantage, it will not guarantee the sustainable success of your business.
To develop systems that’ll underpin your marketing success requires awareness of the necessary elements; an implementation plan; an action plan; a means to monitor effectiveness; a continuous improvement process; and perseverance.
In this article we’re going to focus on 10 core underlying principals of marketing. These principals will form the framework of your marketing plan and build the foundation by which you’ll implement the specific marketing techniques of future modules.
1. Strategy and Planning
Every company that is successful at marketing has strategised and planned their success. Marketing success is not a product of chance. To be an effective marketer, you must plan. Develop a comprehensive Marketing Plan utilising the information contained here and set yourself specific tangible goals.
2. Innovation
Differentiating yourself, your business and your products from your competitors is critical. If you do not differentiate, your prospects will have NO COMPELLING REASON to choose your service over that of your competitors (of which there will be many).
The most powerful way for you to differentiate your business is through product innovation. By innovating a product (it doesn’t have to be a complex innovation) you’ll be perceived as an expert in your niche area.
Your marketing battle is won and lost in the minds of your prospects and clients. It is significantly easier to get into your prospects mind first, than it is to convince them that you have a better product than the competitor that did get there first.
The best way to innovate products is to focus on solving the problems of your niche market.
3. Perception
Where does your marketplace exist? This is a CRITICAL question!
Your marketplace exists solely in the mind of your prospect and client. Every effort you invest in marketing is an effort to win the perception of your prospect. Only by establishing the right perception can you invoke them to take the actions you desire. Your prospects perception is their reality and everything else is simply an illusion.
Your objective therefore is to build perceptions that compel your prospects to act in accord with your desires.
The most wasteful effort you can expend in your business is to try and change the perception of your prospects. By marketing without differentiating and innovating you are trying to change the perceptions of your prospects!
People rarely change their minds and even when they do they resent doing so. You must build perception through first to market niche products.
4. Communication
Communication in all forms with your prospects, clients and the public at large is critical in determining how your business is perceived. Just as effective communication is critical in interpersonal relationships, so too is it critical in the business-client/prospect relationship.
Everything you say (or don’t say), in your written communication (advertisements, brochures, articles, sales letters, follow-up letters, etc), and verbally (on the phone, public speaking, delivering your service, etc) dramatically affects the perception prospects and clients have of your business.
Ensure that all communication delivers the message you want to convey about you, your business, products and services; and ensure that the message you convey is CONSISTENT with your niche markets expectations and desires.
5. Sacrifice
Paradoxically, effective marketing usually requires sacrifice. Sacrifice in the following areas may be necessary:
Products. Many businesses as they attempt to attract more clients go through the mental process of thinking that more products will equate to more clients (which in turn will equate to more revenue and profit). This is not necessarily (most often not!) the case. By expanding your product base you become exposed to the risk that you dilute the perceived benefits of your service in the minds of your prospects. And remember, perception is everything.
Often a focussed, narrower, niche specialty product can be SUBSTANTIALLY more effective than a diversified product range. You CAN NOT be everything to everyone, so be valuable to your core niche market.
Market. To build the requisite perception in the minds of your prospects you may need to sacrifice some market share. Experts and niche products build stronger perceptions and greater loyalty than generalists.
Change. It’s easy to get caught up in the hype of possible market trends. If you have successfully built your brand perception in the minds of your prospects, a lot of damage can be done by trying to change strategy to chase first to market advantages or compete in new unsubstantiated niches.
Profit. Successful businesses re-invest profit to expand. Building perceptions takes capital. Sometimes it’s better to sacrifice some profit taking early on in order to expand your business and entrench your position. This may make it significantly more difficult for competitors in the future and generate much larger profits in the long run.
6. Multiple Strategies
Successful marketing is not built on one strategy alone. Prospects need to impacted multiple times before you can develop the necessary rapport, trust and comfort for them buy from you. To achieve multiple impacts usually requires multiple marketing strategies.
Reliance on a single marketing strategy also places you in substantial RISK. For instance, if you rely on a Yellow Pages advertisement for your lead generation, several competitors may also start using the same medium. In one year your lead generation may be diluted to only 10% of previous years, yet your marketing budget may be grossly spent.
People are diverse. Within your target niche there are people that prefer and respond to different mediums in different ways. For instance, within your target niche, there may be people that search for your services on the Internet, and some potential leads that may not even own a computer.
Marketing strategies and mediums to consider are:

  • Information Forums;
  • Specialist Interviews;
  • Print advertising;
  • Flyers and pamphlets;
  • Affiliate Programs;
  • Joint Ventures;
  • Publishing;
  • Tele-classes and Tele-Seminars;
  • Education Forums;
  • Internet;
  • Direct Mail;
  • Referral;
  • Viral Marketing;
  • Workshops, seminars and group events.

7. Mindset
It’s CRUCIAL to your success that you develop the appropriate Marketing Mindset. Without the right mindset you simply will NOT be able to market effectively and produce the necessary results.
8. Client Focus
For you to maintain the right Marketing Mindset, you must be passionate about the RIGHT THING. You must LOVE YOUR CLIENT. If you are passionate about invoking positive outcomes in the lives of your clients and helping them overcome their substantial challenges; AND you are UNRESERVED in your ability, then you should have no barriers to developing the right Marketing Mindset. 

  • Only coaches that doubt their ability to assist clients are sceptical about telling prospects HOW they will help them. 
  • Coaches that are nervous about CLOSING A SALE are coaches that are sceptical about their ability to help the prospect. 
  • Coaches that doubt their ability FEAR providing a guarantee because they think people will ask for their money back. 

If you are focussed entirely on your clients’ success, your success will result.
9. Educate, don’t Sell
Effective marketers EDUCATE their leads, they don’t SELL their services.
Education based marketing is largely about Credibility Marketing, such as public speaking, information based teleclasses, publications, networking, hotlines, free educational give-aways (such as reports, assessments, tools, eCourses), etc.
Education marketing demonstrates, in a non-intrusive manner, to your leads how you can assist them overcome their substantial challenges. Education based marketing allows you to communicate to leads at a different level. Their barriers are substantially lowered, as they’re framed in a learning context, not a sales context. They’re not sceptical.
10. Cycle of Life
Only a very small percentage of your prospects are READY to purchase at any particular point in time.
Most businesses have a marketing system that TOTALLY NEGLECTS this fact. If 100 people enquire about your services, most likely only 5 to 15 will be seriously looking to purchase at THAT time. The others are simply inquisitive or think they may purchase at some time in the future.
This process is called the Cycle of Life. People regularly enquire about products and services without buying. Think about yourself. You may have the idea that you want a new couch. That thought sits in the back of your mind and over time you visit a few retailers that sell couches. You may visit 6 places over 3-months. EVERY one of those salespeople think you are going to buy a couch THAT VERY WEEKEND! But do you? NO! But will you buy a couch at some point in the future – YES.
How many of those couch salespeople keep in contact with you over the course of several months until you actually decide it’s time to buy? We’ll tell you how many… NONE!!!!
What if just ONE of those couch salespeople offered you a non-intrusive process to learn about what couches will compliment your lounge room, which couches last longest and which ones stain very badly and which ones didn’t? You’d most likely take him up on the offer. And then, after 5-months of learning and being educated by this person, who would you feel COMPELLED to purchase from? Of course!
Or to use another analogy, what if 2 sets of parents had children selling cold lemonade at a parade on a hot day. Each set of parents had 4 children. One set of parents assisted their children establish a nice table and inviting sign from which to sell the drinks from.
The other set of parents assisted their children set up 4 stands at equal intervals along the parade.
Which family sold more lemonade? Of course it’s the children with 4 stands because people are thirsty (desire the product) at different times along the length of the parade. When their client wanted their product, they were there! Nobody was going to double back to get a lemonade.
The life of your prospect is the same as the passing parade. You must recognise that your prospects are going through the Cycle of Life. You MUST be in your prospects consciousness IN THE INSTANT they desire your product. You MUST have a means to add value to them in a non-intrusive and informative manner throughout the ENTIRETY of their Cycle of Life.